用美国小孩的方法学英语最有效(10):美国内战

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The Civil War
美国内战

On April 12, 1861, after years of bitter debate, war began between the North and the South when Confederate troops fired at Union troops stationed at Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. After the attack, President Lincoln called on the states' governors to send 75,000 militia to serve three-month terms as federal soldiers. This forced the governors to decide which side they were on. Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Arkansas seceded from the Union and joined South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, which had already seceded to form the Confederate States of America. The border states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware stayed in the Union.
经过激烈的辩论,1861年4月12日,南方邦联军向驻扎在南卡罗来纳州查尔斯顿港口的萨姆城堡里的联邦军开火,美国南北之间的内战拉开了帷幕。遇刺后,林肯召集各州州长,要求各州征集75,000名民兵到联邦军队服役三个月。这就迫使各州州长下决定站在哪一边。弗吉尼亚、田纳西州、北卡罗来纳州、阿肯色州脱离了联邦,加入了早已脱离联邦并组建了自己的美国南部邦联政府的南卡罗来纳州、乔治亚州、佛罗里达州、阿拉巴马州、密西西比州、路易斯安那和德克萨斯州。密苏里州、肯塔基州、马里兰和特拉华这些边界州则站在联邦军这一边。

Both the Union and Confederate armies were made up largely of inexperienced recruits, but many of the commanders had been educated at West Point and other military schools and had seen action in the Mexican War. Hopes were high on both sides that the war would be very short and either the South would be allowed to form its own government or it would be quickly defeated and forced back into the Union.
联邦和邦联的军队在很大程度上都由大量没有经验的新兵组成,然而双方的指挥官员大多都在西点军校或其他军事学校受过高等教育,很多还参加过墨西哥战役。双方都有信心,认为战争很快就会结束——要么南部获得许可成立自己的政府,要么它会被很快击败被迫重返联邦。

However, the South scored victories at the first battle of Bull Run and while defending the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, during the Seven Days' Campaign. The Confederates won the second battle of Bull Run, and the Union army failed to stop Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia from escaping after the bloody battle at Antietam Creek. Southern commanders included Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson, Joseph Johnston, James Longstreet, and J.E.B. Stuart.
然而事实并非如此。在第一次布尔渊战役中,南方邦联取得了胜利,而后又不得不在弗吉尼亚里士满的七日之战中进行邦联首都保卫战。接下来邦联军赢得了第二次布尔渊战役,在安堤耶坦溪血腥战役后,联邦军没有成功阻止由罗伯特·李领导的北维吉尼亚军队的脱逃。当时南部邦联的指挥将领包括托马斯(斯顿威尔)·约翰逊、约瑟夫·约翰斯顿、詹姆斯·朗斯特里特和J.E.B.斯图亚特。

President Lincoln could not seem to find a commander who could win and keep pushing to finish off the Confederates. Command of the North's Army of the Potomac went from Irwin McDowell to George McClellan to Ambrose Burnside to Joe Hooker to George Meade. After further Union defeats at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, it was an accidental meeting of the two armies at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, that would turn the tide of the war.
林肯总统当时找不到一个能赢得胜利、尽快消灭邦联军的将领。在波拖马可河的联邦军队的将领一换再换,从欧文·麦克道尔到乔治·麦克莱伦再到安布罗斯·伯恩塞德,后来又换成乔·胡克,再后来到乔治·米德。后来,联邦军在弗雷特里克斯堡和钱瑟勒斯维尔战役中取得了胜利。继而两军在宾夕法尼亚的葛底斯堡偶然相遇,改变了战争的局势。

The armies first clashed on July 1, 1863, near Gettysburg, and the battle lasted for three days. The Union army, commanded by General Meade, held Cemetery Ridge and managed to hold off the Confederates. General Lee felt that one grand rush might break the Union army's spirit. On July 3, he ordered George Pickett and his 15,000 men to charge the Union line. About 7,000 men were lost in the attempt. On July 4, the Confederates began to retreat, but again Meade failed to attack them, and Lincoln was again disappointed. Casualties on both sides totaled at least 47,000 men.
双方于1863年7月1日在葛底斯堡附近开战,战斗持续了三天。联邦军当时的指挥官是米德将军,他攻占了墓园山脊,并成功拖住了南方邦联军。李将军认为再来一次大的突击就能击垮联邦军的士气。7月3日,他命令乔治·皮克特将军和他的15,000名士兵进攻联邦军队,只是这一次战争邦联军损失了7,000兵力。7月4日,他们开始撤退,可是米德将军错失良机,没有及时进攻敌军,这让林肯再一次陷入绝望。葛底斯堡战役伤亡惨重,双方伤亡人数至少有47,000。

Also on July 4, 1863, General Ulysses Grant was able to force the surrender of the besieged city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Finally, Lincoln had found a man who could produce victory. Grant was appointed general in chief of the Union army. Grand and soldiers such as William T. Sherman and Phil Sheridan began pushing the Southern armies relentlessly. After bloody battles in Virginia's wilderness, at Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor, and Sherman's march through Georgia, the war stalled in a siege of Petersburg, Virginia. In April 1865, Lee's army abandoned Petersburg and Richmond and moved to the interior of Virginia. Grant's army soon caught up with them, and Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia.
1863年7月4日,尤利西斯·格兰特将军包围了密西西比维克斯堡,迫使邦联军投降。林肯终于找到了能够制敌的将领。他任命格兰特为联邦军的总指挥。格兰特和他的士兵们,如威廉·T.谢尔曼和菲尔·谢里登开始无情地进攻南部邦联。在经历了弗吉尼亚莽原战役、斯波特瑟尔韦尼亚战役和冷港战役等血腥之战后, 谢尔曼挺进乔治亚州。在包围了弗吉尼亚的彼特斯堡,战争告一段落了。1865年,李的军队放弃了彼特斯堡和里士满,向弗吉尼亚的中心地带挺进。格兰特的军队奋起直追,不久就追上了他们。1865年4月9日,在弗吉尼亚的阿波马托克斯县府李将军正式投降。

 

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